[1]魏炳乾,杨坡,罗小康,等.无资料中小流域山洪灾害分析与评价[J].自然灾害学报,2019,28(03):158-165.[doi:10.13577/j.jnd.2019.0318]
 WEI Bingqian,YANG Po,LUO Xiaokang,et al.Analysis and evaluation of mountain flood disaster in small watershed without data[J].,2019,28(03):158-165.[doi:10.13577/j.jnd.2019.0318]
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无资料中小流域山洪灾害分析与评价
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《自然灾害学报》[ISSN:/CN:23-1324/X]

卷:
28
期数:
2019年03期
页码:
158-165
栏目:
出版日期:
2019-06-28

文章信息/Info

Title:
Analysis and evaluation of mountain flood disaster in small watershed without data
作者:
魏炳乾1 杨坡1 罗小康2 赵宾华1 左娟莉1
1. 西安理工大学 省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710048;
2. 陕西省防汛抗旱总指挥部信息中心, 陕西 西安 710004
Author(s):
WEI Bingqian1 YANG Po1 LUO Xiaokang2 ZHAO Binhua1 ZUO Juanli1
1. State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region of China, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China;
2. Shaanxi Provincial Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters, Information Center, Xi’an 710004, China
关键词:
山洪灾害无资料地区设计洪水危险性评价临界雨量
Keywords:
mountain flood disasterarea without datadesign floodrisk assessmentcritical rainfall
分类号:
X43;P694
DOI:
10.13577/j.jnd.2019.0318
摘要:
针对无资料中小流域的沿河村落开展山洪灾害分析评价对该区域的防灾减灾具有重要意义。文中首先根据当地暴雨资料分别推求了100年一遇、20年一遇及5年一遇的设计洪水,再结合实测的控制断面及河道比降,利用能量方程逐断面计算了不同频率的设计洪水位,然后通过对比沿河居民宅基高程与设计洪水位的相对大小确定了沿河村落的防洪能力,并依此划分了危险性等级,最后根据成灾流量反推法计算了不同土壤含水量下的临界雨量值。结果表明,(1)本次分析评价的所有沿河村落中,防洪能力低于5年一遇的极高危险区3个,介于5年一遇至20年一遇的高危险区5个,介于20年一遇至100年一遇的危险区9个,其主要分布于集水面积较大、洪水位较高的主流沿岸地区。(2)土壤含水量对临界雨量的计算结果具有重要影响,即土壤含水量越大,临界雨量值越小,反之则临界雨量越大。(3)支沟地区河道比降大,流速快,洪峰较为尖瘦,计算的立即转移雨量与准备转移雨量差值较大;主流地区比降小,洪峰较为低胖,计算的临界雨量差值较小,故临界雨量值还与防灾对象所处的流域位置有关。(4)当降雨量达到某一成灾村落的立即转移雨量时,则该村落将发生山洪灾害;当达到准备转移雨量时,则可知距洪水淹没村庄时还需多长时间,以便为沿河居民的防洪撤离提供依据。
Abstract:
The analysis and evaluation of mountain torrents in small and medium-sized basins is of great significance for disaster prevention and mitigation in this area. Firstly, the design flood in 100 years, 20 years and 5 years is deduced respectively based on the local rainstorm data. Then the design flood levels of different frequencies are calculated by using the energy equation in combination with the measured control section and the river channel gradient. Next, the flood control ability of the villages along the river is determined by comparing the elevation of the residential house with the design flood level, and the dangerous grades are classified accordingly. Finally, the critical rainfall under different soil moisture content is deduced by the back-calculation method of disaster discharge. The results show that:(1) Among all the villages along the river in this analysis and evaluation, there are three extremely high-risk zones with flood control capacity less than once in 5 years, five high risk zones between 5 years and 20-year return periods, nine dangerous zones between 20-year and 100-year return periods, and they are mainly distributed in the mainstream coastal areas with large catchment area and high flood level. (2) Soil water content has an important influence on the calculation results of critical rainfall. The larger the soil water content is, the smaller the critical rainfall value is. (3) The difference between the calculated immediate transfer rainfall and the prepared transfer rainfall is larger in the tributary area wherein the stream gradient is large, the flow velocity is fast and the peak is thin. Therefore, the calculation results of critical rainfall are also related to the location of the watershed. (4) Mountain torrents will occur in a disaster village when the rainfall reaches the immediate transfer of rainfall. On the other hand, if the rainfall reaches the point where it is ready to transfer, it may be known how long it will take before the village is flooded, so as to provide a basis for the evacuation of residents along the river.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2018-08-23;改回日期:2018-10-23。
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51479163);陕西水利科技计划项目(2013-09);陕西水利科技计划资助项目(2014skj-14)
作者简介:魏炳乾(1963-),男,教授,博士,主要从事河流工程泥沙、山洪灾害分析评价等研究.E-mail:weibingqian@xaut.edu.cn
通讯作者:杨坡(1994-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事山洪灾害分析评价等研究.E-mail:1921554231@qq.com
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01